Jews had been living in the Kazimierz jewish quarter of Kraków since the 13th century, enjoying a privileged status as artisans, scholars, and scientists. About 68,000 lived there just prior to the German invasion, but the Nazis deported most of them, allowing only about 15,000 workers and families to remain. In March, 1941, the occupation authorities displaced the remaining jews to the Podgórze district, cramming them into the Kraków Ghetto, a walled off area previously inhabited by some 3,000 people. They were forced to live four families to an apartment or homeless on the street. In May 1942, the Nazis began systematic deportation from the ghetto to forced labor and extermination camps elsewhere in Poland. Finally, in March, 1943, Kraków Ghetto was liquidated; those who were able to work were sent to the Kraków-Płaszów camp, and those unfit were sent to death camps or shot on the spot. The Nazis dismantled and destroyed the camp as the Red Army approached, leaving only a barren field. The post war communist government neglected Kazimierez, but upon the fall of communism starting in 1988, the area saw a rebirth as a Jewish Cultural Festival was established, and jews started to return. Steven Spielburg's 1993 film Schindler's List was largely shot in Kazimierez. The film drew international attention, and enhanced the recovery of the area.