"Auschwitz" is the German name for the nearby Polish town "Oświęcim." The camp system included two substantial sub-camps, Auschwitz II (Birkenau) and Auschwitz III (Monowitz) as well as 45 satellite camps. Opened in 1940 as a forced labor camp, mass murders started in September 1941, notably well ahead of the January 1942 Wannsee Conference. By early 1942, trainloads of jews were regularly sent to the gas chambers. As the Red Army approached in January 1945, the SS organized a death march towards a railhead about 35 miles away. Of 60,000 prisoners sent on the march, about 15,000 died en route. Survivors were shipped to other camps. Nine days later, the Red Army liberated the camp, where only about 7,500 weak or sick prisoners remained. The date was January 27, now commemorated as International Holocaust Remembrance Day. About 7,000 members of the German SS had been posted to the camp system; over 1,000 were eventually convicted of war crimes. 23 defendants were executed, including camp commandant Rudolf Höss. He was hung from a gallows on the camp grounds.